Many varieties of bitter orange are used for their essential oil, and are found in perfume, used as a flavoring or as a solvent, and also for consumption.
The bitter orange flower oil is commonly known as neroli oil and possesses several therapeutic properties. Evidence shows that it has anti-anxiety, anticancer, anti-obesity, antioxidant, antibacterial, antidiabetic, and pesticidal properties.
Citrus aurantium essential oil aromatherapy reduced anxiety level in the great part of stress conditions studied (subjects affected by chronic myeloid leukemia and preoperative patients) except for a sample of patients subjected to colonoscopy. Exposition to Citrus sinensis essential oil in clinical studies shows to be positive in reducing anxiety level in patients waiting for dental treatment as well as in healthy volunteers submitted to an anxiogenic situation.
Although today they're typically revered for their beauty and symbolism, roses were used for medicine in the past. Rose hips, also known as rose haw or rose hep, are the fruits of the rose plant (rose bush) belonging to Rosa genus in the Rosaceae family (1). Rose hips are edible and are sometimes used in jams, jellies and syrups for their sweet and tangy flavor. They can also be used to make herbal tea and they have many properties that can help protect you from disease.
Rosehip has been used as a source of vitamin C in tea and other products for many years. Rosehip has properties, which can be used for gastritis, diarrhea, polydipsia and vitamin C deficiency. Rosehip may reduce the pain in patients suffering from inflammatory diseases such as osteoarthritis. The present drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid, non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids used for the alleviation of the symptoms associated with this disease are claimed to exhibit a variety of side effects such as gastric erosion and adverse effects on the kidneys and liver. Therefore, it is necessary to find drugs or remedies, which are free from side effects and help to provide these patients with relief from pain and other symptoms(2)
Ferula asafoetida is a herbaceous plant of the Umbelliferae family. It is oleo gum resin obtained from the rhizome and root of the plant. This spice is used as a digestive aid, in food as a condiment and in pickles. It is used in modern herbalism in the treatment of hysteria, some nervous conditions, bronchitis, asthma, and whooping cough. It was at one time employed in the treatment of infantile pneumonia and flatulent colic. The gum resin is antispasmodic, carminative, expectorant, laxative, and sedative. The volatile oil in the gum is eliminated through the lungs, making this an excellent treatment for asthma (1).
The aforementioned pharmacological activities of asafoetida are attributed to its phytochemical constituents such as saponins, steroids, glycosides, phenolic compounds such as tannins and flavonoids (2).
This plant has anticancer activity as well, it has been studied that the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Asafoetida, ginger, cinnamon, and cardamom on HEP-G2 cancer cell lines and human breast cell line (MCF-7) showed the chemopreventive activity throughout in vitro growth inhibitory assay. The aqueous, as well as alcoholic extracts of Asafoetida, ginger, cinnamon, and cardamom, were observed as cytotoxic agents against these tumor cells(3).
Infusion of Hibiscus sabdariffa is a very popular drink in many parts of the world (1).
It has been used traditionally as a food, in herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a flavoring agent in the food industry and as herbal medicine (2)
Its phytochemical composition is associated with antioxidant, hypotensive, and antiatherosclerotic effects (1)
In India, Africa and Mexico, infusions of the leaves or calyces are traditionally used for their diuretic, cholerectic, febrifugal and hypotensive effects, decreasing the viscosity of the blood and stimulating intestinal peristalsis (2).
The results of a research which published in the Journal of Nutrition suggest daily consumption of hibiscus tea, in an amount readily incorporated into the diet, lowers Blood Pressure in pre- and mildly hypertensive adults and may prove an effective component of the dietary changes recommended for people with these conditions(3)
Ginkgo biloba L., (of the Ginkgoaceae family; English name, maidenhair tree) is a living fossil which has amazed scientists all over the world with its immense source of bioactive compounds and medicinal importance. The species is largely used in the treatment of central nervous system disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease and cognitive deficits. 1
also Ginkgo biloba leaf extract has shown beneficial effect in treating impairments in memory, cognitive speed, activities of daily living , edema, inflammation and free-radical toxicity associated with traumatic brain injury , Alzheimer’s dementia, stroke, vaso-occlusive disorders, and aging. 2
Alzheimer’s disease affects about 4% of the population over 65 and 20% of those over 80. The role of amyloid β-peptide in the free-radical oxidative-stress model of neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease has received much attention recently. Ginkgo leaf extract is known to inhibit the formation of the amyloid beta peptide from β-amyloid precursor protein, a crucial process in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease.
Ginkgolide B and bilobalide are reported to inhibit apoptosis induced by staurosporine (alkaloid anticancer drug) and serum deprivation. Bilobalide also prevented DNA fragmentation due to hydroxyl radical β-amyloid and hydrogen peroxide. In addition, Ginkgo leaf has also been reported to improve cerebral blood flow by stimulating norepinephrine secretion, and increased the life span in a particular study of rats treated chronically with Extract of Ginkgo, due to its antioxidant action in reducing oxidative stress and free radical production. Thus, Ginkgo leaf extract has been shown to be a promising herbal dietary supplement with proven therapeutic benefits. However, its long-term safety needs to be properly addressed.3
Common mallow (Malva sylvestris L.) from Malvaceae is an herbaceous plant, localized mainly in Europe (France), North Africa, Southwest Asia and throughout the Mediterranean basin. This species has a long history of use as food, and because of its therapeutic relevance, many parts of this plant have been used in traditional medicines and also in ethno-veterinary medicine. Leaves, in particular, are potent antioxidant, anti-inﬂammatory, anticancer and also they are effective in maintaining the integrity of the skin tissue. They have pharmaceutical properties to treat conditions such as gastrointestinal disorders, abdominal pain and constipation.
A research was conducted to investigate the effect of the mallow leaves aqueous extract in maintaining of intestinal comfort and constipation treatment.
Chronic constipation causes fecal impaction, leading to intestinal obstruction, stercolar ulcerations and/or bowel perforation. Constipation can also be secondary to a disorder of the stool exemption. Such disorder can be associated with a paradoxical anal contraction or involuntary anal spasm, which in two thirds of patient can be an acquired behavioral disorder.
It was estimated that constipation has a prevalence range from 8.75% in the Asian Paciﬁc region to 27% in Western countries. Constipation is common worldwide, affecting all ages, with prevalence of 0.7–29.6% in children and adolescents and 15–50% in the elderly.
The experiment was done on rats divided into six groups of six animals. The laxative activity was determined based on the weight, frequency and water content of the feces matter. The results showed that mallow leaves extract signiﬁcantly reduced loperamide-induced constipation in a dose-dependent manner. Our extract also improved the gastrointestinal motility, mitigated colon lipid peroxidation and H2O colon overload, preserved normal antioxidant enzymes activities and non-enzymatic antioxidant levels.
Citrus fruits with 100 million tons per season are the largest sector of world fruit production, and about 34% of Citrus fruits are used to make juices. Peels are the largest share of byproduct (residue) of Citrus juice and other Citrus processing industries, of which major portion is wasted worldwide. In United States and Brazil alone 2 million dry tons of Citrus waste products (peels) are generated annually. Dry Citrus peels are rich in pectin, cellulose and hemicellulose and can be used as a fermentation substrate. Citrus waste products are processed into extracts for flavonoids, essential oils and d-limonene. Citrus fruits and leaves are traditionally used as anticancer in India and other countries. Researchers listed ancient and medieval uses of Mediterranean-grown C. medica and C. aurantium as anticancer agents. Anticancer potentials of C. aurantifolia, C. paradisi, C. deliciosa, C. aurantium, C. limon, C. jambhiri and C. pyriformis fruit essential oils on various cancer cell lines were also investigated. Most of these studies reported flavonoids, limonoids, vitamin C and β-carotene as the antioxidants and cancer risk reducing factors in Citrus plants. C. reticulata peels (extracts, essential oils) showed significant activity against DLA cell line in MTT assay. Chemical profiles of Citrus peel oils and peel extracts were analyzed by gas chromatographic techniques (GC-FID, GC-MS) and HPTLC-densitometry, respectively. We found C. reticulata peel water extract inducing cell cycle arrest of DLA in G0/G1 phase followed by nuclear condensation, membrane blebbing, formation of apoptotic bodies and DNA damage leading to apoptosis. In in vivo experiments, C. reticulata peel extract pre-treated mice were significantly protected from DLA compared to post-treated mice without any conspicuous toxic symptoms. Citrus peels have volatiles (essential oils, limonoids) and non-volatiles (mainly polymethoxy flavones) as bioactive/anticancer constituents. The results showed the use of Citrus peels, which is wasted in huge amounts, as cancer preventive food additives and as anticancer agents.
Matricaria chamomilla L. from Asteraceae commonly is known as German chamomile and it is used in folk medicine and various herbal remedies for centuries. The drug is obtained from the dried flower heads and is used for the preparation of herbal teas, while their infusions and essential oils have aromatic, flavoring and coloring properties. Approximately 120 bioactive constituents have been identiﬁed in chamomile, including 28 terpenoids and 36 ﬂavonoids. Chamomile contains some terpenoids like α-bisabolol, chamazulene and acetylene derivatives etc. A plethora of biological activities has been described for chamomile extracts and essential oils i.e. anti-inflammatory, antiulcerogenic, against gastrointestinal disorders, antispasmodic, wound healing etc. In addition, chamomile in the form of an aqueous extract has been frequently used as a mild agent to sedate agitation, anxiety, and sleep-related problems.
Poor sleep quality is one the main characteristics of chronic insomnia and a common health problem among elderly people. Any sleep pattern disturbances can directly or indirectly affect physical and psychological health. Thus, sleep assessment and sleep quality improvement, particularly among elderly people, are among the most important care\ measures. Studies show that the prevalence of sleep disturbances increases with age. The most common sleep disturbances that affect elderly people are dyssomnia and insomnia. Due to the side effects of sleep medications, special attention has been given to traditional and herbal therapies in recent years. Chamomile is one of the medicinal plants which are used in Iranian Traditional Medicine as hypnotic and tranquilizer.
In this regard, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the eﬀects of chamomile extract on sleep quality among elderly people. A convenient sample of sixty elderly people who aged sixty or more were randomly allocated to a control and a treatment group. The treatment group received chamomile extract capsules (200 mg) twice a day for 28 consecutive days while the control group received wheat ﬂour capsules (200 mg) in the same manner. After the intervention, sleep quality in the treatment group was signiﬁcantly better than the control group (P < 0.05). The chamomile extract can signiﬁcantly improve sleep quality among elderly people. Thus, it can be used as a safe modality for promoting elderly people’s sleep.
Olive leaf (Olea europaea L.) from Oleaceae is rich in phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, verbascoside, apigenin-7-glucoside, luteolin-7 glucoside, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol. Recent evidences have suggested cardioprotective, neuroprotective, antioxidative, and hypoglycemic activities of olive leaf extract. Among olive polyphenols, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein have their antioxidant activities, such as scavenging oxygen and nitrogen free radicals, inhibiting LDL oxidation, and inhibiting platelet aggregation and endothelial cell activation. The European Food Safety Authority has recognized protective effects of the phenolic compounds of olive on LDL oxidation. Although oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol may exert cytotoxic and prooxidant activity at higher doses, these, in turn, are responsible for their anti-proliferative properties on several cancer cells. In addition, a recent clinical trial shows that daily supplementation of olive leaf extract could reduce blood pressure, plasma lipids and inflammatory markers in prehypertensive male patients. An experiment was conducted to compare the effects of long-term consumption of olive leaf tea (OLT) and green tea (GT) on hematological parameters. It was found that RBC count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were increased significantly in the OLT group than those in the GT group at 6 and 12 weeks of intervention. Within-group comparison showed that hematocrit was significantly increased in the OLT group at 6 weeks of intervention, whereas RBC count and serum iron was significantly decreased in the GT group at 12 weeks of intervention. This is the first clinical study reporting the beneficial effects of continuous intake of OLT on hematological parameters.
The protection and stability of flavours has attracted attentions in the food industry for high-quality products. The microencapsulation of flavours as a process of great importance encapsulates flavours in liquid form to obtain a dry flavoured powder. The capsules can be made of sugars, gums, proteins, polysaccharides, lipids and synthetic polymers. The advantages of this technology lies in the protection against degradative reactions, the loss of flavor and controlled release of flavours during food processing, storage and consumption. The first step is transformation of the feed liquid into a powder using a homogenizer. Some of the most useful encapsulating agents are maltodextrins, arabic gum, modified starches, xanthan and cyclodextrins. Spray drying refers to the removal of moisture from fluid material by breaking it into small droplets in the presence of hot air to obtain a dry powder. Freeze drying is one of the most useful processes for drying thermosensitive substances that are unstable in aqueous solutions. The obtained powders are generally characterized by their low bulk density, high porosity as well as good aroma and taste retention. Fluid bed is widely applied in industry for coating solid particles such as pellets, granules or powders. An experiment was done to evaluate the effect of different drying methods on stability of microencapsulated strawberry flavour. Strawberry flavour is used in the confectionery industry in the production of chewing gum at a rate of 10 g/kg. The stability of this microencapsulated flavour is important to prolong the taste in the final product. According to the obtained results, the most appropriate agent for microencapsulating of the strawberry flavour was the blend maltodextrins /Hi-Cap (9/1) at a fixed concentration of cyclodextrins (1.7%). The best drying yield was observed in the case of freeze drying. Spray drying samples presented the lowest values of water content followed by freeze drying and fluid bed. The most stability at different temperatures and times was related to cyclodextrins with higher presence of volatile compounds in the powder. Spray drying resulted in smooth spherical particles, whereas in freeze drying the structure of the powder was amorphous and like glass and in the case of fluid bed, it was irregular.
Punica granatum L. var pleniflora, locally known as “Golnar-e-farsi,” is an important medicinal plant in some northern areas of Iran. Its ﬂowers are used as the astringent, hemostatic, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral properties and also for treatment of wounds, bronchitis, diarrhea, digestive problems, male sex power reconstituent, and dermal infected wounds in Unani medicinal (Iranian traditional medicine) literature. The topical use of pomegranate preparations is shown to be effectively useful for controlling oral inﬂammation, as well as bacterial and fungal counts in periodontal disease and Candida-associated denture stomatitis. A hydroalcoholic extract of P. granatum fruit, known as HAEP, is reported to be effective against Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, and Proteus species, as well as Escherichia coli. An experiment was conducted for the evaluation of the effect of the alcoholic and water extracts of P. granatum var. pleniﬂora on Recurrent Aphthous stomatitis. It is one of the most common problems seen in children and adults. Studies showed that the occurrence of Aphtous stomatitis. ranges from 2% to 50% between different population groups. This problem is characterized by recurring, painful, small oral mucosal ulcers with a round or oval aspect that mostly appear in keratinized mucosa, cheeks, and on the surface of the mouth under the tongue. There are several etiologic reasons responsible for this problem. The etiology of Aphthous stomatitis is not perfectly clear, but a positive family tree is seen in about one-third of the patients and there is a genetic background in some groups. In some of the patients an unusual hematologic background is seen as a decrease in Fe, ferritin, folate, and B12. The other etiologic reasons are stress, trauma, and cessation of smoking, whose mechanism is not yet accurately clariﬁed. Some patients claim that Aphthous stomatitis occurs in relation to the menstrual cycle and allergy to certain foods. The results show that the alcoholic and water extracts of P. granatum var. pleniﬂora have a meaningful therapeutic effect on minor Aphthous stomatitis. Results from the antioxidant activity and its relation to total phenolics show that P. granatum var. pleniﬂora and P.granatum var. Sweet Alak are rich in phenols. The water and alcoholic extracts of P. granatum var pleniﬂora decreased the entire time of complete treatment, and the treatment was meaningfully satisfactory for patients who participated in this experiment.
Allergic asthma is a persistent inflammatory disease of the bronchial airways in which various characteristics are seen such as recurrent reversible obstacle of the airflow, eosinophilia, airways hyperreactivity, overproduction of mucus, and airway remodeling. Zizyphus jujuba Mill, a famous oriental traditional medicine, has been reported to exhibit diverse activities in biological systems including the respiratory system. However, a little information is available on its antiasthmatic activity.
It is a tree belonging to family Rhamnaceae and is observed in almost all parts of India. The plant has different pharmacological activities, for example, anthelmintic, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antiplatelet, antinociceptive and anticonvulsant, antipyretic, hypoglycemic & hypolipidemic activity. The fruits of Zizyphus jujuba (FZJ) known to stimulate bile production, prevent allergies, and promote blood circulation. Jujuboside B (JB) is a natural saponin and one of the active constituent of fruits of Zizyphus jujuba. In an investigation, JB was isolated from ethanolic extracts of fruits of Zizyphus jujuba (EZJF). EZJF and JB were then evaluated for anti-asthmatic activity using various screening methods. Results showed that EZJF and JB significantly inhibited clonidine-induced catalepsy, milk- induced leucocytosis and eosinophilia, clonidine-induced mast cell degranulation, and passive paw anaphylaxis. The number of inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was considerably lowered and the severity of pulmonary inflammation was alleviated in the mice pretreated with JB. EZJF and JB showed potent anti- asthmatic activity. Hence EZJF and JB possess a potential role in the treatment of asthma.
According to researches aqueous extract of Melissa ofﬁcinalis L. may be a beneﬁcial treatment for patients suffering from benign palpitations as a promising anxiolytic drug without any considerable side effects. Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) is a well-known medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family. It is an aromatic herb native to southern Europe, Asia Minor and North Africa. As a perennial plant it grows to the height of 30–125 cm, with soft short hairs surrounding all parts. Leaves are petiolate, ovate, to 6 cm long. Flowers are white or pale pink consisting of small clusters. Phytochemical investigations have revealed the presence of volatile compounds, triterpenes, phenolic acids and flavonoids as the main active constituents of M. officinalis. The plant has been used for the treatment of mental and CNS diseases, cardiovascular and respiratory problems, various cancers, and as a memory enhancer, cardiac tonic, antidepressant, sleeping aid and antidote. In Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM), Melissa ofﬁcinalis L. is commonly regarded as an effective therapy for heart palpitations. Heart palpitation is deﬁned as an abnormal, unpleasant or heightened awareness of heartbeat. It is a common complaint that is often benign and associated with a marked distress that makes the condition difﬁcult to treat. It is the second most common reason in general practice for which patients are referred to a cardiologist. The recent study is conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of M. ofﬁcinalis leaves on patients with heart palpitation. Eligible volunteers were randomly assigned as patients to a 14 day treatment with 500 mg twice a day of lyophilized aqueous extract of M. ofﬁcinalis leaves (or placebo). The results showed that this treatment reduced frequency of palpitation episodes and signiﬁcantly reduced the number of anxious patients in comparison to the placebo. Also, M. ofﬁcinalis extract showed no indication of any serious side effects.
The genus Mentha includes more than 25 species namely Mentha arvensis, Mentha piperita, Mentha spicata, Mentha pulegium constituting essential oil enriched with monoterpenes namely menthone, carvone, menthol and pulgone as major phytoconstituents. Wild mint or corn mint (Mentha arvensis L.) in this genus and from Lamiaceae family was used for its antioxidant and antiglycation potential. It is a branched, strongly aromatic herb that stems up to 40 cm long with ascending terminal branches. Leaves are elliptic to oblong-ovate, 1.5 to 2 cm long, short-petioled, toothed margins, rounded or blunt tipped. The leaves of M. arvenisis L. are extensively used in traditional system for various medicinal purposes such as expectorant, inflammation of liver, diarrhea, bronchitis, cardiotonic, and skin diseases. The chemical composition of M. arvensis comprise of 1–2% oil containing menthone, menthol, isomenthone, limonene and alpha and beta pinenes respectively.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease, characterized by alteration in the carbohydrate, protein and lipid metabolism. The incidence of diabetes mellitus is continuously increasing in the world. There are many therapeutic treatments available to treat diabetes such as, acarbose and metformin; however, synthetic drugs are generally not preferred because of their high cost and many side effects, hence, it is necessary to develop traditional and alternative medicine which is specially based on plants.
According to researches, Methanolic extract of M. arvensis L. leaves showed DPPH free radical scavenging activity and high antiglycation potential. Methanolic extract also showed remarkable inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase and significant inhibition of postprandial hyperglycemia in starch induced diabetic Wistar rats.
Aloe vera from Asphodelaceae family has a large amount of potentially active compounds with anti-oxidant, antidiabetic, and antihyperlipidemic activities. The leaf consists of three layers i.e. gel, latex and rind. Inner layer contains water (99%), glucomannans, amino acids, lipids, sterols and vitamins.
Obesity is a chronic disease resulting from the excessive accumulation of body fat. It causes health damage in adults, adolescents and children, both in developed and in developing countries. It is associated with many health-related complications such as insulin resistance, Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and other metabolic disorders. In obese individuals, the accumulation of more fat occurs in the adipose tissue and later stage fat deposition takes place other than non-adipose tissue (e.g., muscle and liver).Some researchers found that the body weight and insulin resistance in diabetic patients treated with \ aloe vera gel complex reduced.
According to the present study, the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel in a diet-induced obesity rat model was investigated. Plasma and tissue parameters and adipose lipase activities were determined. The results showed that obese rats displayed dyslipidemia and stress oxidative with excessive adipose tissue lipids. Aloe vera gel administration prevented adipose tissue accumulation and corrected the dyslipidemia and oxidative stress. In conclusion, Aloe vera reduced fat accumulation via its protective role against obesity-related metabolic alterations and antioxidant effects.
In an experiment, encapsulation of garlic essential oil (GEO) in nanophytosomes was considered as a novel phytoconstituents delivery system.
In the food industry, encapsulation refers to a technology in which the bioactive components are completely enveloped, covered and protected by a physical barrier, without any protrusion of the bioactive components .
Nanoencapsulation (encapsulation in the nanometer scale) is able to improve the solubility and stability of bioactive compounds in aqueous phase of foods and beverages during storage period and can contribute to mask the off-flavor and strong aroma. Phytosome is one of the novel lipid based vesicular delivery systems used in the formulation of botanical based nutraceuticals and medicines.
Allium sativum L. commonly known as garlic is predominantly a rich source of organosulfur compounds responsible for its antibacterial properties against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. However, garlic annoying smell restricts its widely application in food industries. The major bioactive compounds responsible for most of GEO functional properties is Allicin with sensitivity to high temperature and high pH conditions. Therefore encapsulation can be used to increase its stability and suppress the unpleasant smell.
In this study, the physicochemical characterization of nanophytosomes and the antioxidant activity, physical stability and antibacterial effects against food-borne pathogens i.e. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated. The results showed an increase in antibacterial effect by GEO nanophytosome in yogurt as a food model. Also insignificant difference was observed among samples containing garlic essential oil loaded nanophytosomes and control. It can be concluded that GEO-nanophytosomes may be offered as an efficient natural food preservative .
Barberry (Berberris vulgaris L.) as a shrub with 1-3m height grows in Asia and Europe. Barberry fruits with pink colour and 10 mm length contain antioxidant ingredient such as berbamine, berberine and berberrubine. Barberry juice with polyphenols content has positive effect on lipid profiles and diabetes complications.
In regard to pharmacological effects of barberry juice, an investigate was conducted on patients with type 2 diabetes. The group treatments were the BJ group who consumed 200 ml of barberry juice daily for eight weeks, or the control group with no intervention. At the baseline and the end of 8-week intervention, blood pressure and biochemical markers were measured. With completion of the study, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, Fasting Blood Sugar and Total Cholesterol significantly decreased. Also Triglyceride decreased significantly in BJ group. Paraoxonase-1(PON1) concentrations significantly increased in Bj group and have a significant difference in comparison with control group.
According to obtained results, barberry juice might be effective in decrease of the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients with diabetes
Valerian is a sedative and sleep-promoting agent that is used as a substitute for stronger synthetic sedatives in the treatment of nervous states and anxiety-induced sleep disturbances.
In research on Parkinson's disease, as one of the most important neurodegenerative worldwide disorders, the potential cytoprotective effects of aqueous extract of Valeriana officinalis on rotenone-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were demonstrated. They found significant changes in the cellular morphology and condensation of the cell body when cells were treated with 300 nM rotenone for 48 h. The three different concentrations of Valeriana officinalis extract (0.049, 0.098 and 0.195 mg/mL) brought about an increase of 7.0 +/- 1.3%, 14.5 +/- 1.3% and 14.5 +/- 3.2% in cell viability. Results indicated that neuroprotector action of the Valeriana officinalis extract may present this drug for the development of cytoprotective various therapies in Parkinson's disease.
This study was conducted to determine the effects of soil and climatic conditions on glycyrrhizic acid contents in various Iranian populations of Glycyrrhiza glabra in two root diameters. Twelve populations in arid, semi-arid and Mediterranean climates of different parts of Iran were collected and the content of glycyrrhizic acid was determined using HPLC.
The results showed that contents of glycyrrhizic acid varied in roots with different diameters. Average contents of glycyrrhizic acid varied 1.36-3.40% in the studied populations. These changes were not significantly correlated to edaphic parameters, but were significantly influenced by temperature.
Cluster analysis of twelve populations of licorice plants regarding glycyrrhizin content categorized these populations in three groups. There was little correlation between glycyrrhizin content and climatic classification, and this reveals that glycyrrhizic content is more affected by genetic factors rather than environmental conditions; therefore, selection of studied liquorices population with high glycyrrhizic acid content would be useful for their genetic improvement
The term ‘gums’ refers to a range of natural polymers, mainly polysaccharides, that are widely used in the food industry to control the rheological and organoleptic properties of food products. They are employed to perform a number of functions including the thickening and gelling of products; the stabilization of foams, emulsions, and dispersions; the inhibition of ice and sugar crystal formation; and the controlled release of active compounds such as flavors and antioxidants.
An area of considerable current interest is in the application of gums as edible films, which can be used to coat fruit and vegetables and hence increase their shelf life. Their film-forming properties are also facilitating their application in biodegradable packaging. It is evident that the market is dominated by starch and gelatin.
The four main tree gum exudates are gum arabic, gum karaya, gum tragacanth, and gum ghatti, with gum arabic being, by far, the most important commercially. Gum tragacanth is obtained from shrubs of the Astragalus species notably A. gummifer and A. microcephalus, which are found in the dry mountainous areas in Iran and Turkey. It consists of a water-swellable fraction called tragacanthic acid (or bassorin) (60–70%) and a water-soluble fraction called tragacanthin. The former consists of a main chain of (1,4)-a-D-galactopyranosyl uronic acid residues with branches linked through (1,3)-bD-xylose units terminating in L fucopyranose. The latter is a highly branched arabinogalactan with a main chain of D-galactopyranosyl units either (1,6)- or (1,3)-linked with side chains consisting mainly of L-arabinofuranose but with a small proportion of D-galacturonic acid and L-rhamnose. Gum tragacanth gives rise to high-viscosity solutions even at 1% concentration. The viscosity decreases irreversibly on heating. The gum solution is stable under acid conditions and shows good emulsification characteristics, which has led to its use in salad dressings and sauces. Its cost and availability, however, have meant that it has been largely replaced in these products by other gums, notably xanthan gum. Gum tragacanth is still widely used in decorative icings for cakes.
American researchers found that a chemical in Organo, called carvacrol, eliminated neuroviruses in the mouse body.NeuroVirus is responsible for 267 million cases of acute gastroenteritis around the world, and this pathogen is transmitted from person to person through respiration, water, and food, according to the Iranian Student News Agency (ISNA). Neuro viruses have been detected four decades ago, but no specific treatment has been made to counteract them. The virus has contaminated solids and resists many disinfectants.
Researchers from the University of Arizona, led by Dr. Kelly Bright, have found that Oregano has a chemical called carvacrol, which can lead to the elimination of neuro viruses. This chemical is able to break the layer of proteins surrounding the virus and the other antimicrobial agents, also penetrates into the virus, and eliminates it. Carvacrol does not produce any harmful by-products or gases, and according to its distinctive aroma, it can be used as a disinfectant in schools and hospitals. More researches should be done to achieve the potential for carvacrol disinfectants. But in the future, this chemical can be used as a disinfectant for food and even for antibiotics, which is a unique method for a virus attack.
Oregano is a very good spice flavor. Recent studies by Long Island University researchers in 2012 suggest that this detoxifier can be used to treat prostate cancer, and the carvacrol chemical prevents cell suicide. "Some researches suggest that eating pizza reduces the risk of cancer and this property is related to the lycopene found in tomato sauce, but new researches show the essential role of Oregano spice," said Dr. Supraya Baudakdak, associate professor at Long Island University. In this regard, the results of this study are published in the Journal of Applied Microbiology.
A recent study reveals the use of a combination of pomegranate peel and fruit due to its anti inflammatory properties to cope with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.
The pomegranate miracle in the treatment of inflammatory diseases reveals a combination of pomegranate peel and fruit effect against Alzheimer's and Parkinson's due to anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, a group of medical experts from the Huddersfield University found that the presence of this anti-inflammatory compound in pomegranate will be in new research to help eliminate these two disabling diseases.
According to data collected at the International Center for Alzheimer's disease, by the year 2050, the number of people with dementia will triple. Now the specialists of this university have observed a combination of pomegranate fruits and peel that can prevent inflammation of the brain cells. Dr. Alimoyukan Olajid, a senior specialist in the study and his research team examined the anti-inflammatory properties of this fruit and tested the composition on the brain cells of the mice. They also looked at the relationship between this compound and any signs of inflammation in the brain cells of these animals. According to these experts, the combination of pomegranates suggests a reduction in the level of inflammation in the brain cells of the mice, although further studies are needed before human experiments begin.
The use of artificial antioxidants causes cancer," said Abbas Baigan, a physician in an interview with ISNA, saying: "The application of Natural and synthetic antioxidants or anti-cancer agents is the main way to treat cancer and repair damaged cells. Baigan added: "Recently, the use of this type of antioxidant has grown as an additive to oral food throughout the world. Excessive use of artificial antioxidants causes cancer.
We have to increase the use of natural antioxidants in foods like legumes, meat, fruits and vegetables, and replace artificial antioxidants," Baigan added. Green leaves tea is a rich source for this type of antioxidant, but unfortunately, after processing and turning it into black tea, it disappears. He added: Green tea leaf has a lot of anti-cancer extract that can be found in food, medicine, Cosmetics, hygiene and even dairy products, and so-called "enriched", for example enriched cake With a green tea leaf that has a 100-fold effect. Baigan said that the Iranian Chemical Development Research Institute has developed this anti-cancer product to add to food. He said: "The remarkable thing about this product is that it has no harm for the people due to plant origin. At the end he announced the initial measures for mass production of this product and said that several large food companies were ready to sign contracts and use this additive in their products.